The Federal Effort to Desegregate Southern Hospitals and the Black-White Infant Mortality Gap

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3p6XQPQ on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM In 1966, Southern hospitals were barred from participating in the Medicare program unless they discontinued their long-standing practice of racial segregation. Using data from five Deep South states and exploiting county-level variation in Medicare certification dates, we find that gaining access to an ostensibly […]

Peer Gender and Mental Health

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3eJigtF on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM Adolescent mental health is key for later well-being. Yet, causal evidence on environmental drivers of adolescent mental health is scant. We study how an important classroom feature—the gender composition in compulsory-school—affects mental health. We use Swedish administrative data (N=576,285) to link variation in gender […]

How does the mental health and wellbeing of teachers compare to other professions? Evidence from eleven survey datasets

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3pf1S8Q on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM There is growing concern about the mental health and wellbeing of teachers globally, with the stress caused by the job thought to be a key factor driving many to leave the profession. It is often claimed that teachers have worse mental health and wellbeing […]

Lead in Drinking Water and Birth Outcomes: A Tale of Two Water Treatment Plants

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3eMqi4L on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM The recent drinking water crisis in Newark, New Jersey’s largest city, has renewed concerns about the lead-in-water crisis becoming a persistent and widespread problem owing to the nation’s aging infrastructure. We exploit a unique natural experiment in Newark, which exogenously exposed some women in […]

The Value of Redistribution: Natural Resources and the Formation of Human Capital under Weak Institutions

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/32tL0Sh on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodities boom to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation in Peru, a country with low governance indicators. Combining test scores from over two million students and district-level administrative data of mining […]

Identifying causal channels of policy reforms with multiple treatments and different types of selection

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3ncZEoz on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM We study the identification of channels of policy reforms with multiple treatments and different types of selection for each treatment. We disentangle reform effects into policy effects, selection effects, and time effects under the assumption of conditional independence, common trends, and an additional exclusion […]

Twin Estimates of the Effects of Prenatal Environment, Child Biology, and Parental Bias on Sex Differences in Early Age Mortality

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/2Uhq63X on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM Sex differences in early age mortality have been explained in prior literature by differences in biological make-up and gender discrimination in the allocation of household resources. Studies estimating the effects of these factors have generally assumed that offspring sex ratio is random, which is […]

Optimal fuel taxation with suboptimal health choices

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/36kedzV on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM Transport has a large number of significant externalities including carbon emissions, air pollution, accidents, and congestion. Active travel such as cycling and walking can reduce these externalities. Moreover, public health research has identified additional social gains from active travel due to health benefits of […]

Income elasticity of demand for health care and it’s change over time: Across the income groups and levels of health expenditure in India.

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/35clvqg on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM This study computes income elasticity of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures of Indian households both across the income groups using the Spline regression model and across the level of health expenditure based on the Quintile regression technique using survey data collected in 2014 and 2018. Healthcare […]

Lessons from Pandemics: Computational agent-based model approach for estimation of downstream and upstream measures to achieve requisite societal behavioural changes

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3kfEFzF on November 9, 2020 at 11:14PM Pandemics such as COVID-19 have lethal potential for inflicting long-lasting cyclic devastations if required preventive, curative and reformative steps are not taken up in time which puts forth mammoth multi-dimensional challenges for survival before mankind. Scientists and policymakers all around are striving to achieve […]

Epidemics, Inequality and Poverty in Preindustrial and Early Industrial Times

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/34PUSqK on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM Recent research has explored the distributive consequences of major historical epidemics, and the current crisis triggered by Covid-19 prompts us to look at the past for insights about how pandemics can affect inequalities in income, wealth, and health. The fourteenth-century Black Death, which is […]

Families of Austerity: Welfare Cuts and Family Stress in Britain

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3mN8Obj on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM Studies have widely documented how families fare when receiving income boosts. Relatively little is known about the intergenerational effects of income losses, especially those resulting from austerity measures pursued after the Great Recession. Income loss can trigger family stress, whereby financial hardship hastens psychological […]

Contributing Factors to Personal Protective Equipment Shortages during the COVID-19 Pandemic

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/38cmmsG on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM This study investigates the forces that contributed to severe shortages in personal protective equipment in the US during the COVID-19 crisis. Problems from a dysfunctional costing model in hospital operating systems were magnified by a very large demand shock triggered by acute need in […]

Health of Elderly Parents, Their Children’s Labor Supply, and the Role of Migrant Care Workers

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/35QA7dO on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM We estimate the impact of parental health on adult children’s labor market outcomes. We focus on health shocks which increase care dependency abruptly. Our estimation strategy exploits the variation in the timing of shocks across treated families. Empirical results based on Austrian administrative data […]

The Effect of Antimalarial Campaigns on Child Mortality and Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3jLhhtG on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM We examine the extent to which recent declines in child mortality and fertility in Sub- Saharan Africa can be attributed to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Exploiting the rapid increase in ITNs since the mid-2000s, we employ a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to identify the causal […]

Working Less to Take Care of Parents? Labor Market Effects of Family Long-Term Care in Four Latin American Countries

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/34QZEUZ on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM We use data from time-use surveys and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) to analyze the relationship between family long-term care (LTC) and female labor supply in four Latin American countries. Time-use survey data from Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico shows that: […]

Re-Examining Supplier-Induced Demand in Health Care: Comparisons among Patients Affiliated and Not Affiliated with Healthcare Professionals in China

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/2TNqNSI on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM Doing "more" in healthcare can be a major threat to the delivery of high-quality health care. This study used coarsened exact matching to test the hypothesis of supplier-induced demand (SID) by comparing health care utilization and expenditures between patients affiliated with healthcare professionals and […]

The medium-term impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The case of the 1918 influenza in US cities

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3mP9P2L on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM This paper uses a difference-in-differences (DID) framework to estimate the impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) used to fight the 1918 influenza pandemic and control the resultant mortality in 43 U.S. cities. The results suggest that NPIs such as school closures and social distancing, as […]

Employment Opportunities and High School Completion during the COVID-19 Recession

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/2TLDZrd on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM COVID-19 created major disruptions for young people including health concerns, school closures, reduced social opportunities, and a wilting economy. We examine the effect of COVID-19 on high school completion in the United States. We find that high school completion rates increased considerably in 2020 […]

Economics and Epidemics: Evidence from an Estimated Spatial Econ-SIR Model

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/2JnRL12 on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM Economic analysis of effective policies for managing epidemics requires an integrated economic and epidemiological approach. We develop and estimate a spatial, micro-founded model of the joint evolution of economic variables and the spread of an epidemic. We empirically discipline the model using new U.S. […]

Contraception, Intra-household Behaviour and Epidemic: Evidence from the Zika crisis in Colombia

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/34ON0G4 on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM We exploit the Zika outbreak in Colombia in 2015 to explore how a negative shock that puts at high risk the newborn’s health affects female behaviours associated with fertility, according to their marital status. The potential endogeneity of behaviours and the outbreak onset is […]

Export restrictions during global health crises: The international community can and must do better

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/3jY0Udy on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM COVID-19 represents one of the biggest pandemic faced by humanity in recent times, spreading to almost all countries and territories on all continents. Because it spread so suddenly and quickly, COVID-19 produced an unparalleled increase in demand in personal protective equipment, medical products and […]

Love Thy Neighbor? Perceived Community Abidance and Private Compliance to COVID-19 Norms in India

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/34QPQub on November 2, 2020 at 08:34PM Compliance with measures like social distancing, hand-washing and wearing masks have emerged as the dominant strategy to combat health risk from the COVID-19 pandemic. These behaviors are often argued to be pro-social, where one must incur private cost to benefit or protect others. Using […]

Quality and Efficiency Between Public and Private Firms: Evidence From the Ambulance Services

from Health Economics at https://bit.ly/2Tu6dqi on October 26, 2020 at 09:42PM Economic theory predicts that outsourcing public services to private firms will reduce costs, but the effect on quality is ambiguous. We explore quality differences between publicly and privately owned ambulances in a setting where patients are as good as randomly assigned to ambulances of […]